Schirmer's Tear Test

Type Wetting
Type I - Without Anesthesia 10-30mm
Type II - With Anesthesia > 8mm

Tear Breakup Time

Result Breakup Time
Normal >= 10 seconds
Abnormal < 10 seconds

Zone Quick Tear Test

Result Wetting
Normal > 20mm
Marginal 10-20mm
Dry < 10mm

ARMD Grading

Grade Drusen
1 Few small (< 63 µm)
2 Many small or 1 intermediate (63-124 µm)
3 Many intermediate or 1 large (>= 125 µm)
4 Geographic or neovascular atrophy

Color Codes for Topical Ocular Medications

*AAO Recommendation

Class Color Cap
Adrenergic agonist combinations Light Green
Adrenergic agonists Purple
Anti-infectives Tan
Anti-inflammatory, non-steroidal Gray
Anti-inflammatory, steroids Pink
Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulators Olive Green
Beta-blocker combinations Dark Blue
Beta-blockers Yellow
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Orange
Cytotoxic Black
Miotics Dark Green
Mydriatics and cycloplegics Red
Prostaglandin analogues Turquoise

IOP Adjustment

CCT
(µ)
Adjustment
(mmHg)
445 +7
455 +6
465 +6
475 +5
485 +4
495 +4
505 +3
CCT
(µ)
Adjustment
(mmHg)
515 +2
525 +1
535 +1
545 0
555 -1
565 -1
575 -2
CCT
(µ)
Adjustment
(mmHg)
585 -3
595 -4
605 -4
615 -5
625 -6
635 -6
645 -7

Cranial Nerves

Nerve Origination Purpose Innervation
I - Olfactory Cerebrum Olfaction/Smell Sensory
II - Optic Cerebrum Vision Sensory
III - Oculomotor
Divisions: Superior/Inferior
Midbrain Eye Movement, Pupillary Constriction,
Accomodation
Motor
IV - Trochlear Midbrain Eye Movement with Superior Oblique Motor
V - Trigeminal
Branches:
V1-Ophthalmic, V2-Maxillary, V3-Mandibular
Pons Corneal & Facial Sensation, Mastication Sensory & Motor
VI - Abducens Pontomedullary Region Eye Movement with Lateral Rectus Motor
VII - Facial
Braches:
Posterior Auricular, Temporal, Zygomatic,
Buccal, Mandibular, Cervical
Pontomedullary Region Facial Expression, Taste, Anterior 2/3 of Tongue,
Lacrimation, Salivation
Sensory & Motor
VIII - Vestibulocochlear Pontomedullary Region Hearing, Equilibrium Sensory
IX - Glossopharyngeal Medulla Oblongata Taste, Posterior 1/3 of Tongue, Swallowing,
Salivation, Sensory Information from Carotid Sinus
Sensory & Motor
X - Vagus Medulla Oblongata Taste, Swallowing, Palate Elevation,
Speech, Slowing Heart Rate
Sensory & Motor
XI - Accessory Medulla Oblongata
& Cervical Spinal Cord
Head Turning, Shoulder Shrugging Motor
XII - Hypoglossal Medulla Oblongata Tongue Movement Motor

Binocular Vision

Test Expected Values
Near Cover Test Ortho - 6XP
NPC 5/7cm Near
7/10cm Distance
Vergence Facility (3BI/12BO) 15 cycles/min
Positive Fusional Vergence 17/21/11
Negative Fusional Vergence 13/21/13
Positive Fusional Reserve
(Blur/Break/Recovery)
7-11 / 15-23 / 8-12 △
Negative Fusional Reserve
(Blur/Break/Recovery)
x / 5-9 / 3-5 △
Amplitude of Accomodation Minimum: 15 - (1/4)Age
Lag of Accomodation +0.25 to +0.75
Positive Relative Accomodation -2.37 (+/-1.00)
Negative Relative Accomodation +2.00 (+/-0.50)
ACA 4/1 △
Condition Cover Test NPC Vergence
Facility
Vergence
Amplitude
Accomodative
Amplitude
Binocular
Acc. Facility
Monocular
Acc. Facility
NRA/PRA MEM
Basic Exophoria Exo, D=N Normal Low BO @ D&N Low BO @ D&N Normal Fails (+) Normal Low NRA Low
Basic Esophoria Eso, D=N Normal Low BI @ D&N Low BI @ D&N Normal Fails (-) Normal Low PRA High
Convergence Insufficiency Exo, >N Receded Low BO Low BO Normal Fails (+) Normal Low NRA Low
Convergence Excess Eso, >N Normal Low BI Normal Normal Fails (-) Normal Low PRA High
Divergence Insufficiency Eso, >D Normal Low BI @ D Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
Divergence Excess Exo, >D Normal Low BO @ D Low BO @ D Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
Accomodative Insufficiency No Pattern Normal Normal Normal Low Fails (-) Fails (-) Low PRA High
Fusional Vergence Dysfunction Low Eso or Exo Normal Low BI & BO Normal Normal Fails (+) & (-) Normal Low NRA/PRA Normal

Expected Refractive Error

VA Absolute Myopia/Hyperopia (D) Uncorrected Astigmatism (D)
20/20 0.00 Small
20/30 0.50 1.00
20/40 0.75 1.50
20/60 1.00 2.00
20/80 1.50 3.00
20/120 2.00 4.00
20/200 2.00 - 3.00 High

Significant Refractive Error

Isoametropic Anisometropic
Astigmatism ≥ 2.50D ≥ 1.50D
Myopia ≥ 6.00D ≥ 3.00D
Hyperopia ≥ 4.00D ≥ 1.00D

Lens Materials

Material Abbe Value Refractive Index
Glass 58.6 1.503
CR-39 56.8 1.498
Trivex 44 1.532
High Index 1.74 33 1.740
Polycarbonate 30 1.586